Thursday, March 19, 2020
Convention Exhibition Centre Essays Convention Exhibition Centre Essay Convention Exhibition Centre Essay On the 18th February 2009, several lucky year 11 drama students at Santa Maria College saw Nostalgia by Ishinha at the Perth Convention Exhibition Centre. This play extended for 2 hours, which was a reasonable time frame for such an astounding performance. Prior to the performance, I had very low expectations for the play because I assumed I wouldnt understand the plot, for the dialogue is in Japanese. However, the performance definitely exceeded my expectations because I understood the plot through the non-verbal communication and greatly appreciated this. The performance put aside, the audience was disappointing because I was forced to mix with people I would not normally mix with, and these people carried out rude habits, such as eating and talking during the performance. Nevertheless, the play was that brilliant that I didnt notice this often. Nostalgia is a play about Japanese immigrants migrating to Brazil in 1908. It is the story of Noichi, who wonders around the world, falling in love with Ann along the way. Ann, Noichi, and their new companion, Chikino, wander throughout South America. Unfortunately, they get separated because of racism and struggle to find each other again. Along with racism, Nostalgia faces such issues as friendship, immigration, and discrimination. The dramatic form of Nostalgia is non-realism because of certain theatrical devices. For example: the characters broke the fourth wall; language was stylised through repetition; and dance, song, and unrealistic costume were employed. Even though the form was non-realism, it also included aspects of a representational style because it attempted to create the illusion of life progressing on stage. The settings were extremely detailed and realistic, and the audience is expected to emphasise with the characters. I liked how the action of the play was clearly structured into thirteen obvious scenes, which generally didnt include narrative devices. Each scene had an individual tone. For example, scene 9 had a joyful tone, involving several cheerful children singing questions. Whereas, scene 3 had a distressing tone, because the privacy of the immigrants was violated. The overall tone of the play would be reflective because each scene reflects on different aspects along their journey. The performance space used was a box stage and the set changed every scene. The set was mostly representational in style because it was very realistic, especially in the newspaper factory in scene five. However, it did consist of few presentational scenes because the set was unachievable. Some of these unachievable sets included the beach in scene one, the river in scene six, and the desert in scene eight. The set was extremely effective in creating a sense of place because it was so realistic and believable. The set contributed to the various moods of the play because it emphasized the issues by situating them on a more believable level. There are numerous scenes in Nostalgia that used lighting, which consequently impacted my opinion of the play. Some scenes cleverly used realistic lighting to convey to the audience the time of day. For example, in scene five, the lighting was bright during the day, and then dimmed when it was nighttime. The use of symbolism through lighting really impacted my view of the play. One of the many brilliant examples was in scene three: during the physical examination, there was an extremely bright light symbolising the violation of the immigrants privacy, which contributed to the distressed mood of the scene. There were many sound effects used throughout the duration of the play. One of the powerful examples occurred in scene five: after the protests, fire, rape, and shootings, there was unbelievably loud music, which intensified the scene. This contributed to the chaotic mood of the scene because the loud music added more havoc to the issues already presented. Overall, I definitely enjoyed watching Nostalgia. I believe the play is amazing because of the theatrical techniques, such as music; lighting; song and dance; and scene structure. Surprisingly, I could actually understand the plot, regardless of not being able to recognise the dialogue, because I understood the non-verbal communication. This was a new experience for me, as I had never seen an international play before. Without a doubt, I would recommend everyone to watch Nostalgia!
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
About the Geodesic Dome in Architecture A geodesic dome is a spherical space-frame structure composed of a complex network of triangles. The linked triangles create a self-bracing framework that is structurally strong yet elegantly delicate. The geodesic dome could be called the manifestation of the phrase less is more, as a minimum of building materials geometrically arranged ensures a design both strong and lightweight- especially when the framework is covered with modern siding materials like ETFE. The design allows massive interior space, free from columns or other supports. A space-frame is the three-dimensional (3D) structural framework that enables a geodesic dome to exist, as opposed to a typical buildings two-dimensional (2D) frame of length and width. The space in this sense is not outer space, although the resultant structures sometimes look like they come from the Age of Space Exploration. The term geodesic is from Latin, meaning earth dividing. A geodesic line is the shortest distance between any two points on a sphere. Inventors of the Geodesic Dome: Domes are a relatively recent invention in architecture.Ã Ã Romes Pantheon, rebuilt around 125 AD, is one of the oldest large domes. In order to support the weight of the heavy building materials in early domes, the walls beneath were made very thick and the top of the dome became thinner. In the case of the Pantheon in Rome, an open hole or oculus is at the domes apex. The the idea of combining triangles with the architectural arch was pioneered in 1919 by German engineer Dr. Walther Bauersfeld. By 1923, Bauersfeld had designed the worlds first projection planetarium for the Zeiss Company in Jena, Germany. However, it was R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983) who conceived and popularized the concept of geodesic domes being used as homes. Fullers first patent for a geodesic dome was issued in 1954. In 1967 his design was shown to the world with Biosphere constructed for Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada. Fuller claimed that it would be possible to enclose mid-town Manhattan in New York City with a two-mile wide temperature-controlled dome like the one presented at the Montreal exposition. The dome, he said, would pay for itself within ten years...just from the savings of snow-removal costs. On the 50th anniversary of receiving a patent for the geodesic dome, R. Buckminster Fuller was commemorated on a US postage stamp in 2004. An index of his patents can be found at the Buckminster Fuller Institute. The triangle continues to be used as a means to strengthen architectural height, as evidenced in many skyscrapers, including One World Trade Center in New York City. Note the massive, elongated triangular sides on this and other tall buildings. About Space-Frame Structures: Dr. Mario Salvadori reminds us that rectangles are not inherently stiff. So, none other than Alexander Graham Bell came up with the idea of triangulating large roof frames to cover large, barrier-free interior spaces. Thus, write Salvadori, the modern space frame sprang from the mind of an electrical engineer and gave rise to a whole family of roofs having the enormous advantage of modular construction, easy assemblage, economy, and visual impact. In 1960, The Harvard Crimson described the geodesic dome as a structure composed of a large number of five-sided figures. If you build your own geodesic dome model, youll get an idea of how triangles are put together to form hexagons and pentagons. The geometry can be assembled to form all kinds of interior spaces, like architect I.M. Peis Pyramid at The Louvre and the gridshell forms used for the tensile architecture of Frei Otto and Shigeru Ban. Additional Definitions: Geodesic Dome: A structure consisting of a multiplicity of similar, light, straight-line elements (usually in tension) which form a grid in the shape of a dome.- Dictionary of Architecture and Construction, Cyril M. Harris, ed., McGraw- Hill, 1975, p. 227 Space-Frame: A three-dimensional framework for enclosing spaces, in which all members are interconnected and act as a single entity, resisting loads applied in any direction.- Dictionary of Architecture, 3rd ed. Penguin, 1980, p. 304 Examples of Geodesic Domes: Geodesic domes are efficient, inexpensive, and durable. Corrugated metal dome homes have been assembled in undeveloped parts of the world for only hundreds of dollars. Plastic and fiberglass domes are used for sensitive radar equipment in Arctic regions and for weather stations around the world. Geodesic domes are also used for emergency shelter and mobile military housing. The best-known structure built in the manner of a geodesic dome may be Spaceship Earth, the ATT Pavilion at EPCOT in Disney World, Florida. The EPCOT icon is an adaptation of Buckminster Fullers geodesic dome. Other structures using this type of architecture include the Tacoma Dome in Washington State, Milwaukees Mitchell Park Conservatory in Wisconsin, the St. Louis Climatron, the Biosphere desert project in Arizona, the Greater Des Moines Botanical Garden Conservatory in Iowa, and many projects created with ETFE including the Eden Project in Britain. Sources: Why Buildings Stand Up by Mario Salvadori, Norton 1980, McGraw-Hill 1982, p. 162;Ã Fuller, Nervi Candela to Deliver 1961-62 Norton Lecture Series, The Harvard Crimson, November 15, 1960 [accessed May 28, 2016]; History of Carl Zeiss Planetariums, Zeiss [accessed April 28, 2017]
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Critical perspectives - Essay Example Thus, conjuring perspectives in social and economic programs have continuously battled through time. In this regard, we see that many aspects of economic, political, social, and cultural motivations underpin the processes of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Changing political and social approaches is thus fundamental to forming new economic platforms and social goals. In Freefall (2010), Stiglitz re-establishes the Ã¢â¬Ëgovernment-interventionÃ¢â¬â¢ approach (see Keynes 1926) to market economy by criticizing the current malfunctions of economic trend present in America and subsequently in most parts of the world. In his book, Stiglitz (2010) was able to illustrate the risks and failures that the Ã¢â¬Ëfree-market economyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Smith 1776) encounters. Stiglitz (2010) enumerated the downfall of many aspects of social welfare, particularly the conditions of inequalities, by referring to many examples of the imbalances of power in the economic and political realms of the society . Freefall (2010) uncovers the allegedly ill-founded traditions of economic practices in America and other affected countries in the international arena. The book suggests change in approach and perspective in determining the more suitable policies towards economic stability and development. In this paper, a critical discussion of StiglitzÃ¢â¬â¢s (2010) analysis of the present economic situations as drawn from the Great Recession in America will be presented. In line with this, the opposing arguments of the free-market and government-intervention economic perspectives will be examined in order to understand better the background of StiglitzÃ¢â¬â¢s essay. Moreover, looking at the backdrop of the practiced economic programs, the effects of such accounts on the local and international conditions will also be talked about. In here, the influences of globalization movement will be substantiated and analyzed in terms of its effect in the local and international social welfare and econ omic status. The effects of the discussed perspectives in relation to culture and society will be considered. In addition, a discussion of the moral and ethical conditions underlying the issues will be examined. Thus, in this paper, a critical exploration of the perspectives involved in the matter will be done in order to see the significant points Stiglitz suggests in his essay. The Old and the New Economy In Freefall, Stiglitz (2010) emphasizes the grave conditions of world economy as a misleading approach to economic policies continues to prevail in the United States and subsequently in peripheral countries particularly in Asia. The Great Depression and the more recent Great Recession in the United States have tremendously shown how the local and global economy was constructed on a Ã¢â¬ËsinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ foundation (Stiglitz 2010). Stiglitz profoundly highlights the ill-conditions of some of the biggest international organizations facing economic retaliation namely the United Sta tes Treasury and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The long-practiced economic advocacy echoing Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s laissez faire tremendously affects the world political-economic trends in history primarily through the said international organizations. In this regard, the political underpinnings of the world economic framework are apparently magnetized by the free-market policies. This
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Astronomy 123 Homework - Assignment Example He believed that everything in the space was located within the galaxy. Shapley advocated a proposition of relative size to support his idea that if the Andromeda galaxy had not been part of the Milky Way then the distance of it could have been 1000000000 light year. This research was not fully welcomed by most of the scientists during the period. The Andromeda spiral almost sparkled at an era of time in the Andromeda galaxy. Outwardly and for new star, the gross energy was not reasonable. Consequently, the Andromeda and new star should be in Milky Way. The evidence showed optical spectrum of the spiral nebula was not distinguishable from spectrum of the galaxy. Shapley also utilized the kind of absurdum and reduction fully. If Andromeda had been independent, then it had possessed a miraculous brightness so that people could have detected from far. 3. Andrew McKellar was a Canadian astronomer, who studied physics and mathematics in the University of British Columbia. He showed his first observations to astronomers in 1930 and early 1940s. He suffered a number of setbacks that made him not to realize it. One of the setbacks was non-uniformity in observations. This was due to coherent fluctuations on angular scales that were larger than cosmological horizon at combination. Instrumental errors due to the use of different instruments were another major cause of difficulty in data collection. Planck telescope which was more sensitive and had larger angular resolution confirmed the axis of evil observation. Non- equivalent dependent variable designs used by Andrew McKellar hindered effective collection of
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Microcontroller Based DC Motor Speed Controller In this report I present a microcontroller based DC motor speed controller. DC motors play a vital role in most of the industrial areas. They are mainly used for the mechanical movements of physical applications such as media drives, power plants, lifts, elevators, conveyers, belt driven loads (printing press) etc. The controller implements the control strategy governing the load and motor characteristics. To match the load and motor, the input to the microcontroller is manipulated by the controller. The purpose of a motor speed controller is to capture a signal representing the demanded speed, and to drive the motor at that speed. The controller may or may not actually measure the speed of the motor. If it does, it is called a Feedback Speed Controller or Closed Loop Speed Controller, if not it is called an Open Loop Speed Controller. Feedback speed control is better, but more complicated, and may not be required for a simple circuit design. The former (closed loop) is implemented in the presented controller design. The subject arrangement consisted of a tachometer attached to the shaft of the motor. A controller design cannot be more accurate than methods aimed at measuring actual motor speed. This is readily attained by coupling the motor shaft with a tachometer. The tachometer output signal is converted to a dc voltage signal acceptable to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to drive the motor accomplishing the load requirement. The operation of dc motor was studied. Several types of motors and various control types were investigated. The project also intends to familiarize us with the efficiency of PIC in control systems. To evaluate the effectiveness of the controller, analysis will be conducted driving variable load while maintaining constant speed of the motor. The advantages of using microcontrollers to control dc motor were studied. INTRODUCTION 1.1 MOTOR An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. The mechanical energy can be used to perform work such as rotating a pump impeller, fan, blower, driving a compressor, lifting materials etc. It is estimated that about 70% of the total electrical load is accounted by motors only. 1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MOTORS Electric Motors Alternating Current (AC) Motors Direct Current (DC) Motors Synchronous Induction Three-Phase Single-Phase Self Excited Separately Excited Series Shunt Compound FIG-1.1 classification of motors 1.3 AC MOTORS An AC motor is a motor that is driven by an alternating current. It consists of two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. 1.3.1 TYPES OF AC MOTORS There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a sub multiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which turns slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current. 1.3.2 TYPES OF INDUCTION MOTORS Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors The most simple and reliable of all electric motors. It is essentially a constant speed machine, which is adaptable for users under all but the most severe starting conditions. Requires little attention as there are no commutator or slip rings, yet operates with good efficiency. Wound-Rotor (Slip Ring) Induction motor It is used for constant speed-service requiring a heavier starting torque than is obtainable with squirrel cage type. Because of its lower starting current, this type is frequently used instead of the squirrel-cage type in larger sizes. These motors are also used for varying-speed-service. Speed varies with this load, so that they should not be used where constant speed at each adjustment is required, as for machine tools. Single Phase Induction Motors This motor is used mostly in small sizes, where polyphase current is not available. Characteristics are not as good as the polyphase motor and for size larger than 10 HP, the line disturbance is likely to be objectionable. These motors are commonly used for light starting and for running loads up to 1/3 HP Capacitor and repulsion types provide greater torque and are built in sizes up to 10 HP. Synchronous Motors Run at constant speed fixed by frequency of the system. Require direct current for excitation and have low starting torque. For large motor-generators sets, frequency changes, air compressors and similar apparatus which permits starting under a light load, for which they are generally used. These motors are used with considerable advantage, particularly on large power systems, because of their inherent ability to improve the power factor of the system. 1.4 DC MOTOR Direct-Current motors, as the name implies, use a direct-unidirectional current. A DC motor has three main components: Field pole. The interaction of two magnetic fields causes the rotation in a DC motor. The DC motor has field poles that are stationary and an armature that turns on bearings in the space between the field poles. A simple DC motor has two field poles: a north pole and a south pole. The magnetic lines of force extend across the opening between the poles from north to south. Armature. When current goes through the armature, it becomes an electromagnet. The armature, cylindrical in shape, is linked to a drive shaft in order to drive the load. The armature rotates in the magnetic field established by the poles, until the north and south poles of the magnets change location with respect to the armature. Once this happens, the current is reversed to switch the south and north poles of the armature. Commutator. This component is found mainly in DC motors. Its purpose is to overturn the direction of the electric current in the armature. The commutator also helps in the transmission of current between the armature and the power source. 1.4.1 OPERATION OF A DC MOTOR: When a dc motor is subject to dc voltage, the current flows through the armature coil. A wire carrying current also has a magnetic field around it. This magnetic field distorts the parallel magnetic field of stator to produce a force which causes the armature coil to turn. FIG-1.2 operation of motor Each coil of the armature is not only connected to the brushes but the brushes are connected first to one end and then to the other end of the coil. This commutating action is necessary to maintain the same direction of the current flow in the armature coils relative to the magnetic field lines in the field poles. The motor would never turn without commutation. FIG-1.3 cross section diagram of a motor 1.4.2 Types of Excitations There are two basic elements in a DC motor. The way in which these are connected results in various types of DC motors. SHUNT WOUND: The construction and principle of operation of a shunt motor is similar to any DC motor. This type of motor is called shunt because the field is in parallel or shunts the armature. The shunt field is directly connected in parallel with the armature circuit. Shunt windings require large number of turns to produce a strong magnetic field. SERIES WOUND: In a series wound motor, the field is connected in series with the armature. In this type, the speed tends to increase until the back EMF equals the impressed voltage. The EMF also decreases the current in the field and armature. As the field weakens more speed is required to maintain the counter EMF. Thus a series motor is used only where the load is attached e.g. A lift truck, an electric crane. Etc. COMPOUND WOUND: A compound motor has two field windings, the shunt field and series field. The shunt connected in parallel with the armature and the series field connected in series with the armature. The combination of both fields gives double advantages. It has a greater torque than the shunt motor due to the series field and fairly constant speed due to the series field winding. The compound motor has both shunt and series motor characteristics. These will be discussed along with their control techniques in the next chapter. 1.5 TACHOMETER A tachometer is an instrument that measures the rotational speed of the shaft of the motor. It functions in a similar fashion as compared to a speedometer on a car. It tells you the speed of the car. Similarly the tachometer is used to measure the motor speed. In a closed loop control system the information about the instantaneous state of the output is fed back and compared with the input and difference is used to modify the output in such manner as to achieve a desired condition. Similarly a tachometer is coupled to the shaft of the motor. Thus a signal representing the speed of the motor is produced. This signal is fed back to the input where it is compared to the speed command voltage. The error produced is actuated by the speed of the motor. In my designed controller the error actuating and motor control is achieved by programming the microcontroller. It is used to control the rotation of the motor. It senses the input and process it using the program burned in it and gives the required PWM output on the required port pins. This output controls the on/off time of the mosfet and thus controls the motor. This technique and mosfets will be discussed in the next chapter. As long as the speed command voltage is held constant, the motor will run at a proportional constant speed regardless of the mechanical load. The set speed control gives a dc voltage input, for example 12 volts for maximum speed and zero for stationary. This could be a potentiometer providing any voltage in a range from zero to +12 volts. The microcontroller (PIC) amplifies the difference between the two input voltages (tachometer and potentiometer) and the error is actuated. 1.6 MICROCONTROLLER (PIC) The name PIC initially referred to Programmable Interface Controller. Advantages of using PIC over other controlling devices for controlling the DC motor are given below: SPEED The execution of an instruction in PIC IC is very fast (in micro seconds) and can be changed by changing the oscillator frequency. One instruction generally takes 0.2 microseconds. COMPACT: The PIC IC will make the hardware circuitry compact. RISC PROCESSOR The instruction set consists of only 35 instructions. EPROM PROGRAM MEMORY Program can be modified and rewritten very easily. INBUILT HARDWARE SUPPORT Since PIC IC has inbuilt programmable timers, ports and interrupts, no extra hardware is needed. POWERFUL OUTPUT PIN CONTROL Output pins can be driven to high state, using a single instruction. The output pin can drive a load up to 25mA. INBUILT I/O PORTS EXPANSIONS This reduces the extra ICs which are needed for port expansion and port can be expanded very easily. INTEGRATION OF OPERATIONAL FEATURES Power on reset and brown/out protection ensures that the chip operates only when the supply voltage is within specification. A watchdog timer resets PIC if the chip ever malfunctions and deviates from its normal operation. The speed of motor is directly proportional to the DC voltage applied across its terminals. Hence, if we control the voltage applied across its terminal we actually control its speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) wave can be used to control the speed of the motor. Here the average voltage given or the average current flowing through the motor will change depending on the ON and OFF time of the pulses controlling the speed of the motor i.e. The duty cycle of the wave controls motor speed. This wave is generated by the PIC. . CHAPTER 2. 2.1 DC SHUNT MOTOR FIG -2.3 Shunt windings require large number of turns to produce a strong magnetic field. This is because a small gauge wire cannot handle heavy currents. As a result, when voltage is applied, very little current flows through the shunt coil. The interaction of the magnetic fields between the one from armature and the one from shunt coil causes the motor to rotate. The speed can be controlled by varying the field strength or armature voltage. Current is supplied from the stationary housing to the rotating armature through commutator brushes arrangement. As the stator is stationary, power is applied directly to it. 2.1.2 SPEED CONTROL OF A DC SHUNT MOTOR This type of motor runs at a constant speed practically, regardless of the load. It is the type generally used in commercial practice. Speed of the shunt wound motors may be varied in two ways: First, by inserting resistance in series with the armature, thus decreasing speed (FIG ) And second, by inserting resistance in the field circuit. In this case the speed will vary with each change in load. This normally works with any controller setting i.e. it maintains constant speed despite variable load. Therefore, a shunt motor has proved its efficiency in adjustable speed service and loads requiring a low starting torque. 2.2 DC SERIES MOTOR In a series motor, the field winding (shunt field) is connected in series with the armature winding (A) as shown in the figure. The field current is therefore equal to the armature current. Speed is restricted to 5000 RPM It must be avoided to run a series motor with no load because the motor will accelerate uncontrollably. FIG-2.5 V = Supply voltage E = Generated e.m.f I = Supply current RA = Armature resistance RF = Field resistance 2.2.2 SPEED CONTROL OF A DC SERIES MOTOR The speed of a series motor depends almost entirely on the flux. The stronger the field flux, the lower the speed. Likewise, decrease in load current and therefore in field current and field flux causes an increase in speed. This can be achieved by adding a resistor in parallel with the series field winding. This causes the field current to decrease and the flux drops accordingly. This causes the motor speed to increase. The speed can be decreased by adding an external resistor in series with the armature and the field winding. This would cause a reduction in the armature supply voltage causing the motor speed to decrease. 2.3 DC COMPOUND MOTOR A DC compound motor is a combination of shunt and series motor. In a compound motor, the field winding (shunt field) is connected in parallel in series with the armature winding (A). For this reason this motor has a good starting torque and a stable speed. The higher the percentage of compounding (i.e. percentage of field winding connected in series), the higher the starting torque this motor can handle. For example, compounding of 40-50% makes the motor suitable for hoists and cranes, but standard compound motors (12%) are not. There are 2 major types of compound motors. These are given below: Cumulative compound motors Differential compound motors FIF-2.6 CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR FIG-2.7 DIFFERENTIAL COMPOUND MOTOR 2.3.2 SPEED CONTROL OF A COMPOUND MOTOR The speed of a compound motor can easily be controlled by changing the voltage supply to the motor. A solid state AC variable frequency motor drive can also be used to vary the speed of an AC motor. 2.4 PWM (PULSE WIDTH MODULATION) PWM, or Pulse Width Modulation, is a method of controlling the amount of power to a load without having to dissipate any power in the load driver. Imagine a 10W light bulb load supplied from a battery. In this case the battery supplies 10W of power, and the light bulb converts this 10W into light and heat. No power is lost anywhere else in the circuit. If we wanted to dim the light bulb, so it only absorbed 5W of power, we could place a resistor in series which absorbed 5W and then the light bulb could absorb the other 5W. This would work, but the power dissipated in the resistor not only makes it get very hot, but is wasted. The battery is still supplying 10W. An alternative way is to switch the light bulb on and off very quickly so that it is only on for half of the time. Then the average power taken by the light bulb is still only 5W, and the average power supplied by the battery is only supplying 5W also. If we wanted the bulb to take 6W, we could leave the switch on for a little longer than the time it was off, then a little more average power will be delivered to the bulb. This on-off switching is called PWM. The amount of power delivered to the load is proportional to the percentage of time that the load is switched on. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) or duty cycle variations are commonly used in speed control of dc motor. The duty cycle is defined as the percentage of digital high to digital low and digital high pulse-width during a PWM period. Thus by varying the pulse width, we can vary the average voltage across a DC motor and hence its speed In my presented controller design the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) function of PIC is used for the electric current control to drive a motor. PWM can change the duty of the pulse to output into CCP1 by the data. The duty of the pulse of CCP1 is controlled in the voltage (the control voltage). When the control voltage is higher than the regulation value, the H level time of the CCP1 pulse is made long and the number of rotations of the motor is lowered. When the control voltage is lower than the regulation value, the H level time of the CCP1 pulse is made short and the number of rotations of the motor is raised. This mechanism will be discussed and elaborated in the next chapter. 2.5 MOSFETS The speed controller works by varying the average voltage sent to the motor. Imagine a light bulb with a switch. When you close the switch, the bulb goes on and is at full brightness, say 100 Watts. When you open the switch it goes off (0 Watts). Now if you close the switch for a fraction of a second, and then open it for the same amount of time, the filament wont have time to cool down and heat up, and you will just get an average glow of 50 Watts. This is how lamp dimmers work, and the same principle is used by speed controllers to drive a motor. When the switch is closed, the motor sees 12 Volts, and when it is open it sees 0 Volts. If the switch is open for the same amount of time as it is closed, the motor will see an average of 6 Volts, and will run more slowly accordingly. As the amount of time that the voltage is on increases compared with the amount of time that it is off, the average speed of the motor increases. This on-off switching is performed by power MOSFETs. A MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device that can turn very large currents on and off under the control of a low signal level voltage 2.5.1 TYPES OF MOSFETS. There are NPN type and PNP type as the semiconductor part. When no voltage is applied no electric current flows between the drain and the source. NPN type is called N-channel and PNP type is called P channel. An oxide film is put to the semiconductor of NPN or PNP and metal is put onto it as the gate. In case of NPN, the part of N is a source pole and a drain pole. In case of PNP, the part of P is the polar side. When positive voltage is applied to the gate of the N-channel MOS FET, the electrons of N-channel of source and drain are attracted to the gate and go into the P-channel semiconductor among both. With the movement of these electrons, it conditions itself like spans a bridge for electrons between drain and source. The size of this bridge is controlled by the voltage to apply to the gate. . This type (N CHANNEL) of mosfet is used in the presented controller. FIG 2.8 In case of P-channel MOS FET, the voltage is opposite but does similar operation. When negative voltage is applied to the gate of P-channel MOS FET, the holes of P-channel of source and drain are attracted to the gate and go into the N-channel semiconductor among both. With the movement of these holes, a bridge for holes is spanned and the electric current flows between drain and source. Transistor controls an output current by the input current. However, in case of FET, it controls an output current by input voltage (Electric field). The input current doesnt flow. To handle a MOS FET, needs attention because the oxidation insulation film is thin. This film is prone to the high voltage of the static electricity and so on. CHAPTER 3 The highlighted part in the figure represents the shaft which links the motor and the tachometer. The speed of the motor is directly proportional to the frequency of the tachometer. The dc voltage input is provided by the potentiometer. The microcontroller operates on a dc voltage. The output from the tachometer is a sine wave which has to be rectified in order to operate the pic. This is achieved using an F/V converter. The converter releases a dc logic signal which operates the pic. CIRCUIT EXPLANATION: The input voltage to the main motor is controlled by a potentiometer. This variable resistor could be adjusted manually to provide a 0-12 v input. This voltage sets the number of rotations of the main motor. The input voltage of PIC becomes low when bringing VR1 close to the side 1 and PIC increases the drive electric current of the motor. That is, the revolution of the motor rises. The input voltage of PIC becomes high when bringing VR1 close to the side 3 and PIC reduces the drive electric current of the motor. That is, the revolution of the motor slows down. Control voltage is defined as the feedback signal which is produced to rectify the error between the desired and controlled speed. This is provided by the tachometer in our case. The output from the tachometer is a sine wave which cannot operate the microcontroller to perform the programmed functions. This is converted to a dc voltage signal compatible with the pic microcontroller. This changed voltage is used to enable the CCP feature of the PIC resulting in motor drive. The CCP feature will be discussed in detail later in the chapter. The control voltage to PIC is thus governed by the fluctuations of the main motor. This control voltage (feedback signal) is directly proportional to the rotational speed of the motor. The PIC microcontroller is the brain of the circuit controlling all actions to be done and the output. PIC controls the electric drive current for the control voltage to become a regulation value. When the revolution of the motor slows down, i.e. control voltage goes down, the drive electric current of the motor is increased and number of rotations is raised. When the control voltage reaches a regulation value, a drive electric current at the point is held. When the number of rotations of the motor is high, i.e. the control voltage is high, the drive electric current of the motor is reduced and number of rotations is lowered D1 is used to protect PIC when the voltage of the detection motor is high. The voltage which is applied to the terminal of PIC is a maximum of +5V. This zener diode prevents the destruction of PIC when the speed detection voltage of the motor exceeds 5V. CCP FEATURE Capture, Compare and Pulse Width Modulation feature is abbreviated to form CCP. Capture This is the function to capture the 16 bits value of timer1 register when an event occurs on pin RC2/CCP1. This can be used for the measurement of the period time of the signal like the frequency counter and so on Compare Generate an interrupt, or change on output pin, when Timer 1 matches a pre-set comparison value PWM Create a re-configurable steady duty cycle square wave output at a user set frequency. The timer resource of the capture and compare is timer1 and the timer resource of PWM is timer2. The following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register. PWM Period equals [(PR2+1)]*4Tosc*(timer 2 prescale value), and the resultant PWM frequency equals 1/ PWM_Period. Tosc stands for time period of the oscillations. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR1L register and CCP1X and CCP1Y bits of CCP1CON register. Duty Cycle is based on CCPRxL, most significant byte, and CCPxCON, least significant two bits. CCPRxL functions as a comparative value with timer 2 and a scaling factor to determine the number of counts of CCPx. PWM logic remains high, without considering CCPxCON. The two least significant bits, CCPxCON, determine the percentage of the maximum resolution the PWM duty cycle is extended. Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC. Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON register. Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation. PWM can change the duty of the pulse to output into CCP1 by the data. When the time period of the H level of the pulse of CCP1 is short, the time of ON (the L level) becomes long in TR2 which implies that the drive electric current of the motor increases. Oppositely, when the H level time of the pulse of CCP1 is long, the ON time of TR2 becomes short and the drive electric current of the motor decreases. The duty of the pulse of CCP1 is controlled by the control voltage (feedback signal) which was taken in with input circuit. When the control voltage is higher than the regulation value, the H level time of the CCP1 pulse is made long and the number of rotations of the motor is lowered. When the control voltage is lower than the regulation value, the H level time of the CCP1 pulse is made short and the number of rotations of the motor is raised. A three terminal regulator is used for getting the operate voltage for pic. PARTS PIC16F873 3 Terminal regulator ( 7805) Transistor for MOS FET drive ( 2SC1815 ) Power MOS FET ( 2SK3142 ) Zener diode ( RD5A ) IC socket Resonator Variable resistor for motor speed setting Resistors Capacitors Printed board VFC 320 (F/V CONV) Bipolar transistor 2N222 FURURE WORK: Dec: complete circuit design and order components. January: software design and circuit assembly February: Simulation and preparation of final report and presentation March: review and appendices April: submission.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Article Review Number Two NRSG 115 October, 31, 2012 Article Review Number Two This article briefly summarizes informatics providing definitions for confusing terminology and what it means for the nursing profession. Nursing informatics is described as the union of nursing science, computer science, and information science. As advances in technology continue, nursing informatics increasingly plays a larger role in patient care and nursing practice (Manal, Shaben, & Allen, 2012).By encouraging proficiency in informatics, the authors believe that nurses can improve their knowledge base and confidence in their practice. This competency can lead to a higher quality of care and a safer work environment in the nursing profession (Manal et al. , 2012). Quote Ã¢â¬Å"However, choosing to ignore the technology does not address the challenges. On the contrary, nurses need to think about technology beyond skills mastery and critically examine how it impacts patient care and nursing practiceÃ¢â¬ (Manal et al. , 2012, p. 14). You can read also Coronary Artery Disease Nursing Care PlanParaphrase Nurses should view technology as another tool that is important for the profession and patient care (Manal et al. , 2012, p. 14). Evaluation All three authors are registered nurses. Kelib is a candidate for a PhD and holds two masters; one in business administration and the other in nursing. The remaining authors, Allen and Shaben, both hold masters in nursing. As nurses, they understand the increasingly complex world of technology that is changing the nursing profession, and why it is important for nurses to be competent in it.Two of the nurses provided their email addresses in the article for those interested in being a part of the Informatics Specialty Practice Group for Alberta nurses, which leads me to believe that they are very involved and obviously up-to-date in the world of nursing informatics. This article was published in spring of 2012. I believe it is one of the most current articles on the subject. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t dive into the specifics of informatics which is a constantly evolving field. Instead it focuses on the importance of understanding what informatics is and why it is important in nursing practice.Since it is such a quick and generalized overview, I believe it is as relevant as it was 6 months ago. This article was geared towards registered nurses, particularly those that work in Canada. I also believe that this article is applicable to anyone in the nursing profession. I do think that this information is relevant to me as a student. It is a very simple article that presents to the reader a brief description of informatics in language I understand. This information provides me insight into the importance and impact that the evolving world of technology has on nursing.The authors quote a professional opinion from one reference and cite references throughout the text to support their conclusions. The first section of the article defines health informatics and terminology related to literacy. All the definitions and facts are cited and referenced. The second half of the article provides an expert opinion as to why informatics is important to nursing. This article uses eight references. Four of the references were published within the past 6 years and the other half dates back from 1996-2003.I do consider this bibliography useful because this article is such a brief overview of informatics and I would like to learn more. I realize how important informatics is to nursing practice and the reference list provides great resources to expand my knowledge on the subject. This article was found on the CINAHL database provided by the Renne Library website. I went under advanced search options and narrowed the search by selecting the box, first author is a nurse, and limited the date of publication to no later than five years ago.I entered informatics into the find box. I think this is an expert opinion article because it is not peer reviewed. It does not incl ude the required abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section that research articles have. It does cite other research articles and papers related to informatics to provide evidence for their opinion. References Kleib, M. , Shaben, T. , & Allen, D. (2012). Lost in translation. Alberta RN, 68(1), 12-14. Retrieved from
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The phenomenon of ticklishness has puzzled scientists and philosophers for decades. From social bonding to survival, researchers have offered a wide range of theories to explain this peculiar bodily quirk. Opposing Theories Charles DarwinÃ argued that the mechanism behind ticklishness is similar to the way we laugh in response to a funny joke. In both cases, he contended, one must be Ã¢â¬Å"lightÃ¢â¬ state of mind in order to respond with laughter. Sir Francis Bacon made an opposing claim when he said on the subject of tickling,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"...[W]e see that men even in a grieved state of mind, yet cannot sometimes forbear laughing. The opposing theories of Darwin and Bacon reflect some of the contemporary conflicts that exist in research on tickling today. Tickling as Social Bonding Tickling may function as a form of social bonding, especially for a parent and child. University of Maryland neuroscientist Robert Provine, who considers ticklishness to be Ã¢â¬Å"one of the broadest and deepest subjects in science,Ã¢â¬ Ã says that the laughter response to being tickled is activated within the first few months of life and that tickling as a form of play helps newborns connect with parents.Ã Its also possible that the horseplay and other games involving tickling help us hone our ability to defend ourselves Ã¢â¬â a kind of casual combat training. This view is supported by the fact that the regions of the body that happen to be most ticklish, such as the armpits, ribs, and inner thighs, are also areas that are particularly vulnerable to attack. Tickling as a Reflex Research into the physical response to tickling has led to conclusions that conflict with the social bonding hypothesis. The social bonding hypothesis really starts to fall apart when one considers those who find the experience of being tickled unpleasant. A study conducted by psychologists at the University of California in San Diego found that subjects can experience an equal degree of ticklishness regardless of whether they believe they are being tickled by a machine or a human. From these findings,Ã the authors drew the conclusion that being ticklish is more likely a reflex than anything else. If ticklishness isÃ a reflex, why canÃ¢â¬â¢t we tickle ourselves? Even Aristotle asked himself this question. Neuroscientists atÃ University College London used brain mappingÃ to study the impossibility of self-tickling. They determined that the region of the brain responsible for coordinating movements, known as the cerebellum, can read your intentions and even predict exactly where on the body an attempt to self-tickle will occur. This mental process prevents out the intended tickle effect. Types of Ticklishness Just as there is wide variation to where and the degree in which a person is ticklish, there are more than one type of tickle. Knismesis is the light, gentle tickling felt when someone runs a feather across the surface of the skin. It does not typically induce laughter and can be described as irritating and slightly itchy. Conversely, gargalesis is a more intense sensation triggered by aggressive tickling and usually provokes audible laughter and squirming. Gargalesis is the type of tickling used for play and other social interactions. Scientists speculateÃ that each type of tickle produces markedly different sensations because the signals are sent through separate nerve pathways. Ticklish Animals Humans are not the only animals with a tickle response. Experiments in ratsÃ have shown that tickling rodents can trigger inaudible vocalizations that are akin to laughter. A closer measurement of their brain activity using electrodes even revealed where the rats are most ticklish: along the belly and the bottoms of the feet. However, the researchers found that the rats who were put in a stressful situation did not have the same response to being tickled, which suggests that Darwins light state of mind theory might not be totally off base. For the human population, the explanation for the tickle response remains elusive, tickling away at our curiosity.Ã Ã Key Takeaways The phenomenon of ticklishness has not yet been conclusively explained. Multiple theories to explain the phenomenon exist, and research is ongoing.The social bonding theory suggests the tickle response developed to facilitate social bonding between parents and newborns. A similar theory posits that ticklishness is a self-defense instinct.The reflex theory states that the tickle response is a reflex that is not affected by identity of the tickler.There are two different types of tickle sensations: knismesis and gargalesis.Ã Other animals experience the tickle response, too. Scientists have found that rats emit an inaudible vocalization akin to laughter when they are tickled. Sources Bacon, Francis, and Basil Montagu.Ã The Works Of Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor Of England. Murphy, 1887. Harris, Christine R., and Nicholas Christenfeld. Humour, Tickle, And The Darwin-Hecker Hypothesis.Ã Cognition Emotion, vol 11, no. 1, 1997, pp. 103-110. Harris, Christine. The Mystery Of Ticklish Laughter.Ã American Scientist, vol 87, no. 4, 1999, p. 344. Holmes, Bob.Ã Science: ItÃ¢â¬â¢S The Tickle Not The Tickler.Ã New Scientist, 1997, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15320712-300-science-its-the-tickle-not-the-tickler/. Osterath,Ã Brigitte.Ã Playful rats reveal brain region that drives ticklishness.Ã Nature News, 2016. Ã¢â¬â¹Provine, Robert R. Laughing, Tickling, And The Evolution Of Speech And Self.Ã Current Directions In Psychological Science, vol 13, no. 6, 2004, pp. 215-218.