Tuesday, August 25, 2020
A Mother's Dream for her Daughter in Amy Tan's Two Kinds Amy Tan's short story, Two Kinds starts with a concise prologue to one mother's translation of the American dream. The Chinese mother who lost her family in her local country presently wants to recover some portion of her misfortune through her girl. Those of us who are guardians need what is best for our youngsters. We endeavor to improve our youngsters' prospects. At times, when our own fantasies have either been demolished or not understood, we anticipate our fantasies and wishes on our youngsters. In Two Kinds, Amy Tan recounts such a story through the eyes of a little youngster who at first impersonates her mom's fantasies at the end of the day opposes them. Tan's utilization of a typical subject that most guardians can identify with communicates the disappointments that guardians and kids feel when fixation replaces supporting. In the first place the little youngster, Ni Kan is similarly as energized as her mom about turning into a wonder (528). She envisions herself in various jobs and accepts that once she has accomplished her status as a wonder, her mom and father will revere her and she will become great (528). Ni Kan may feel that she won't be adored totally by her folks in the event that she doesn't accomplish the status her mom has set for her. It is normal for any little youngster to need to satisfy a parent that has checked out them. Ni Kan feels that her wonder side is stating to her, In the event that you don't hustle just a bit and get me out of here, I'm vanishing for acceptable (528). This may demonstrate that Ni Kan is getting fretful about turning into a wonder and she fears that in the event that it doesn't occur soon she will consistently be nothing in her mom's eyes (528). Tan fortifies this inclination in the story... ...aughter. In the story, Ni Kan expressed that, It was sufficient that she had offered it to me and that it had made her vibe pleased, as though it were a trophy I had won back (535). The creator additionally appears to utilize a bit of music to reflect how Ni Kan has felt about the contention with her mom. After the demise of her mom, Ni Kan glances through the music at the piano. She discovers two bits of music inverse each other in the book. The principal piece is Arguing Child and the second is Entirely satisfied. These two titles propose the feelings of Ni Kan as a youngster and her feelings now as a grown-up. These feelings are emblematically united when Ni Kan acknowledges they were two parts of a similar tune (535). Works Cited: Tan, Amy. Two Kinds. Writing, Reading Reacting,Writing. fifth ed. Ed. Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. Boston: Heinle, 2004. 527-535.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Brazilian Wine Industry - Essay Example As needs be the remote speculation of Brazil in different economies and the ventures made by different economies in Brazilian markets have likewise expanded. Therefore, it very well may be expressed that the outside relations of the economy and its invitingness towards remote venture is very successful demonstrating that the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment in advancing political dependability is very noteworthy (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 2007). From the above conversation it is evident that the world of politics of the economy is very steady and the administration is additionally giving extensive hugeness to the characteristic. In addition, the remote exchange is likewise proficiently supported in the economy. Along these lines, almost certainly, the section of Australian Vintage Ltd. in the Brazilian economy will get moderate political mediations, which thusly would make the section simpler. Rules and guidelines concerning the remote ventures are controlled and directed by the Federal Government of Brazil. Be that as it may, the conditions of the economy control the business enrollment of a remote firm, the yield on ventures and the terms of framework ventures. The cooperation of remote organizations in such manner is altogether relied upon the endorsement of the Brazilian Government. The economy additionally has a Commercial Code so as to control the activities of business firms, both national and outside. The economy likewise serves the chance to the outside firms to enter the
Sunday, July 26, 2020
Over is the Wait To all of this yearâs applicants: Pi day is long gone, and after 6:28 p.m., you probably experienced a barrage of feelings. These might include pain for being rejected, joy for being accepted, anxiousness for being waitlisted, and a whole spectrum of feelings in between. I remember doing a couple of anxious dances and taking a few deep breaths before I opened the webpage which told me whether or not I was accepted. You would think that by the way I was feeling, I had been determined to go here since the age of womb-dom. Now that I look back on it, though, this roller-coaster feeling process was all silly. Inevitable, maybe. But it was silly nonetheless. Lets be frank, during my freshman year of high school, I had no idea what MIT was. It could have been in Michigan or Maryland for all I knew or cared. College? Yeah, it was something that I was eventually going to have to think about. All I really knew was that I liked to learn. I liked challenging myself, and I liked to ask questions. I liked growing intellectually. I liked building things! With food! I liked pondering, and I liked the word just as much. I liked the idea of being an engineer or scientist or something like that. I liked being busy all the time. I knew that NOVA was the absolute most inspiring television show to watch, ever. I liked sharing ideas with people, seeing their reactions, and hearing their opinions. I knew these things. I knew the stuff that I was made of. Now fast forward to today and what is on my mind. Today, Iâve got a bajillion things to do. And today, I will not finish all of them. Today I wonder why I was so excited about having been accepted, and Iâll yawn, wearily. Today, Iâll work. Hard. Iâll go tutor. Iâll go be tutored. Iâll make food. Iâll plan next week. Iâll think, wow, how is the semester almost halfway over?! Iâll acknowledge the fact that I have tests soon. Iâll think a lot of things, and sure, Iâll worry. Just as you all were worrying and may be worrying about your futures, whether you got accepted or not. But every time I get to thinking this way, EVERY single time I start to worry about my future or begin to wonder why Iâm here, I think of the one thing I do know. Good old freshman me. I know who I was as a freshman in high school. She is me at the core. She is enough to make me smile and keep on going with more passion than before. She is why I make sacrifices and choose the right instead of the easy, focus, and essentially, she is why I am right here, right now. In the voice of your mindâ¦. (Sorry, Iâve always wanted to do that :P) Seriously though, the vast majority of you who applied did not do so on a whim, but rather because there was something you wanted to experience. A good, hearty challenge? Being inspired? Research? Perhaps you just really wanted to hack? There are a plethora of reasons. But no matter what the reason, I just want to say that I am proud of all of you applicants for simply applying. Whether or not you realize it, you proved to yourself that you could go out and follow your dreams just by having clicked the submit button oh so many days ago. A simple and bold first step: click. Iâm not going to lie, Iâm not this person all the time: So I mess up. I fall asleep. I get tired and sore. Iâm human. You, too. Being accepted into MIT or any college will most definitely not get you through it. And being rejected does not mean that now, all hopes for accomplishing anything are lost. Either way, no matter what applicant âcategoryâ you now fall under, I have one piece of advice. Remember your âfreshman selvesâ, if you will. Remember all that is important to youâ"what you like doing, what your values are, what inspires you, what makes you tick. Once you get in touch with who you are, youâll realize nothing else matters. If you look back at the sum of your experiencesâ"if you look back on who you have become, youâll see that this person will be enough to keep on motivating you and guiding you up and aheadâ"beyond what you may have thought was possible. Iâm assuming that, especially after writing all of your college essays, you know who you areâ"what youâve lived through and what youâre made of. If you remind yourself of this intriguing, truly unique individual every time the goinâ gets rough, you should suddenly hear a wonderful voice in your mind. The simplest, best, most real voice ever: Gosh darn it, I have one heck of a life to live. And then after a blink or two, in my case, anyway, Supermassive Black Hole by Muse starts to play in my head.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 547 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? Attending a high-quality program prepares a kid for kindergarten and beyond. Providing a center where children can be accommodated is thus a noble idea. This plan presents an idea of coming up with an in-home daycare program that will befit toddlers. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Service / Product of in-home daycare" essay for you Create order Toddlers possess the best ability to retain a new language if taught using the right means. As children grow, their capability of maintaining a new language increase but after 13 years, they cannot learn a new language (Genius, 2011). Contrary to popular belief, learning a second language does not interfere with the learning of the first language. In fact, it gives the toddler the advantage of learning two languages at simultaneously. This program will offer French as a second language. Teaching a toddler, a second language gives them the ability to execute tasks that require executive functioning. The teaching of French in particular as a second language gives the toddler the advantage of learning English faster as the English language has borrowed extensively from French. Additionally, they will be exposed to the culture of the French through the language. Apparently, language and culture are inseparable as the culture of people is infused in their language. Psychologists propose that toddlers should be kept safe, and closer to their home so that they can relate well as they learn. With this program, the toddlers will be exposed to a safe environmental learning condition in regards to personal and external safety. They will be taken care of as they are channeled towards the educational experience. Additionally, the center will be close to their homes, and this will offer a psychological comfort to enable them to learn well. It is recommended that toddlers be exposed to outdoor activities to enable them to develop both physically and mentally. This center will have outdoor activities for the toddlers and will be taken for trips to the park occasionally. They will also be exposed to a trustworthy educator who will attend to their physical and psychological needs (Genius, 2011). They will also be taught on core virtues such as obedience, trustworthiness, honesty, and kindness. Toddler centers are supposed to be located in safe environments where the parents can access them with ease. The center stands outs from the others due to its proximity. It is situated in a safe and secure place in 248 129th Ave NE Bellevue WA 98005 close to parks and library. This will ensure that the toddlers get are provided with enough resources from the library to help them adapt accordingly (Greenman, Stonehouse Schweikert, 2010). This is a location which is indeed close to the highway, and the toddlers will not have to walk for a couple of long distances before reaching the center. This is advantageous to the working parents as they can check on their children at any time. Since the center is supposed to be close to Microsoft Offices, the parents who work there will have easy access to their children. For the success of the toddlers, communication between the parents and staff members is important. That is why an apt child care program is necessary (Greenman, Stonehouse Schweikert, 2010). The staff members will show their commitment toward working with young children. They must resolve to behave professionally when at work to ensure that children have the best time in school.
Friday, May 8, 2020
Humans have strived for improvement in every facet of their lives, all the way from technology down to their diet. In this current day and age, humans are now capable of gene manipulation in their children, meaning mankind is taking a great step in familial modification. Yet even with our advancements in the medical field, we still fall to the ills of cancer, AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, or anything else on the laundry list of genetic disorders. With such opportunity to better improve our children, what mother or father would not wish to Ã¢â¬Å"give their child the best chance of living a happy and successful life?Ã¢â¬ (Fox, D. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 567) The first thing we can do with genetic modification is remove the genes that, whenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By choosing genetic combinations expressing a mixture of overall better health, children of the future will grow up to be happy and healthy. Such blueprints can then be passed on to their children, who will conti nue the process. Parents can rest assured their child will come into the world without any surprises such as red hair in a brown haired family, or an extra pair of toes. For those who believe such a program is unattainable due to financial reasons should consider the program to be run by a government organization through the state or federal government. Such polarization of our biological makeup has no physical prrof that it could create a sect between the enhanced and non-enhanced (Fox, D. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 572). In fact, such a breakthrough in modern science would also be advocated alongside planned pregnancy, allowing doctors to recommend and support families seeking to improve their future children. These parents to be are left with Ã¢â¬Å"the genetic constitution of the offspring for themselves,Ã¢â¬ (Fox, D. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 569). With the benefits offered with such modification of DNA, our future children will pass on their desired g enetic traits to their offspring, allowing for greater adult longevity. With the more positive genetic traits being expressed, fewer people will fall to natural causes such as heart attacksShow MoreRelatedGene Technology Essay1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages3, 2013 Gene technology is the term given to a range of activities concerned with understanding the expression of genes, taking advantage of natural genetic variation, modifying genes and transferring genes to new hosts. Gene technology sits within the broader area of biotechnology Ã¢â¬â the use of living things to make or change products. Humans have been using biotechnology for centuries in activities ranging from plant and animal breeding through to brewing and baking. All living things have genesRead MoreDavid Moore s On Nature Vs. Nurture1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRyan Babakhani Anthropology 423 Christina Campbell October 9, 2017 David MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s Take on Nature vs. Nurture Traditionally, studies of various organisms have highlighted the importance of genetics as the main determinant of the traits and behaviors that characterize them. This goes back to the Darwinian Theory, which categorized beauty and glamour as results of Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ genes and the existence of evil and depression as consequences of Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ genes. The idea that genes are the critical determining factorRead MoreThe Human Genome Project And Encyclopedia Of Dna Elements2847 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pageslife as we know it must start at the basics with our own DNA. DNA is the building blocks for all life, so to understand life we must analyze the mechanism of genetics. Projects like the Human Genome project and Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) analyzes DNA to give society an interpretation of what the building code is and means. Our genetic code holds coding and non-coding sequences, at first researchers focused solely on coding DNA for it carried the function and means to life. The other non-codingRead MoreEvolution Of Language And The Brain1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhich tackles on his theory of the co-evolution of language and the brain. He has 3 tasks in this book first, differentiates human mode of reference (symbolic reference), versus the non-symbolic references found in nonhuman species. Second to explain why it may be difficult for nonhuman species t o understand this form of symbolic reference, and third how to explain humans overcome the difficult of understanding symbolic references. In the Preface of The Symbolic Species, he mentions he is rebelliousRead MoreThe Implications Of The Human Genome Project On Human Health1853 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Implications of the Human Genome Project on Human Health: Focus on Cancer research Abstract: This essay investigate the implication of the Human Genome Project on human health, focusing on cancer research, the consequences faced by the Human Genome Protect and further examine how far science has come in liking genetic factors to human diseases. The paper outlines how the launch of the project has aided disease researchers with information needed to link genomes to human diseases and also findRead MoreAdvantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering3368 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesGenetic Engineering / Advantages and Disadvantages During the latter stage stages of the 20th century, man harnessed the power of the atom, and not long after, soon realised the power of genes. Genetic engineering is going to become a very mainstream part of our lives sooner or later, because there are so many possibilities advantages (and disadvantages) involved. Here are just some of the advantages : * Disease could be prevented by detecting people/plants/animals that are genetically prone toRead MoreGenetic Analysis : The Nature Of The Smyd1b Gene3979 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesUse of Genetic analysis to study the nature of the Smyd1b gene in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscular Systems of Zebra Fish Prajwal Keranahalli Poolesville High School Institution: Institute of Marine and Environmental Technologies/ University of Maryland Baltimore Campus Mentor: Dr. Shaojun Du Research Project Teachers: Mr. Mark Curran, Dr. Patricia Miller Summer 2014 Abstract: One of every 5600 to 7700 males below 30 suffer from genetic muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic diseasesRead MoreIntro to Psychology: Chapter Notes 1- 54753 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesperspective * concerned with ways we mentally represent the world and process info. * Memory, perception, learning, problem solving, decision making, language, planning * Humanistic-Existential Perspective * Humanism stresses human capacity for self-fulfillment. * Role of conciousness, self-awareness, decision making * Existentialism stresses free choice and personal responsibility. * Carl Rogers * Abraham Maslow * Diversity within psychologyRead MoreFormulations in Cbt3885 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesinterested him most: when, how, and under what conditions new behavioral repertoires unfold in real time. (Morgan Morgan, 2001). Case formulation is referred to as a CBT keystone, and is considered essential to the practice of CBT. It is the blueprint to help both therapist and client figure out what is going on. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a foundation of CBT because it describes and explains clients presentations and itÃ¢â¬â¢s at the heart of understanding clientÃ¢â¬â¢s difficulties (Beck, 1976) in ways that inform interventionsRead More50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified (Gm) Foods14312 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pagesbeen filed with the US Patent Office alone, and many more abroad. Furthermore an economic war broke out to own equity in firms that legally claimed such patent rights or the means to control not only genetically modified organisms but vast reaches of human food supplies. This has been the behind-the-scenes and key factor for some of the largest and rapid agri-chemical firm mergers in history. The merger of Pioneer Hi-Bed and Dupont (1997), Novartis AG and AstraZeneca PLC (2000), plus Dow s merger with
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Gender- Inequality in labor force The American Dream, one of the most attractive things which draw thousands people to the United States, is just a simple promise: equality. This is where people can work hard and expect to gain from their effort. This is where opportunities are equally provided for anyone who has determination to improve his or her life. We will write a custom essay sample on American Dream for Women- Yes or No or any similar topic only for you Order Now Anyone can have equal access to the American Dream. However, it depends. If you are White, you can dream that dream. If you are non-White, you cannot. If you belong to the middle and upper class, you have the right to dream. If you find yourself struggling to have daily meals, you do not have that right. Similarly, if you are male, go ahead, but if you are not, you have to step back. Gender has always been a big problem with the American Dream. Women cannot move themselves to better lives in the same way that men are able to. Gender creates deep-rooted inequality against women in the labor force, through the social construction of gender roles and femininity. Inequality between two genders shows up as early as in the beginning of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s career. Influenced by gender roles, women and men tend to choose jobs that can help them fulfill their social expectations (Weisgram, Dinella, and Fulcher 245). For example, men would prefer jobs with high monetary reward to fulfill their breadwinning roles, and women would choose jobs which allow them to have time with their family as they are supposed to be the main caretakers. Women, raised with the idea of femininity, would choose careers related to caring or serving such as teachers and nurses, while men would be more attracted to careers in technology and management fields, which require the supposedly masculine characteristics such as decisiveness. As a result, women have a tendency to choose their careers in female-dominated fields, whose monetary reward generally is lower than those of male-dominated fields. This division of the work force also influences womenÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation of their future salaries. Research shows that men overall have higher pay expectation than women, and people intending to work in male-dominated fields have much higher pay expectation than those who want to work in female-dominated fields (Hogue, DuBois, and Fox- Cardamone 222). Low pay expectation can result in receiving lower pay offers in an equally qualified pool of job applicants, and starting wages can affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s career in his or her long term payment (Hogue, DuBois, and Fox-Cardamone 215). This reflects that in reality women who work in ale-dominated fields earn 26% more than other women who have female-dominated jobs, as the U. S. Department of Labor reported in 2008 (qtd. in Hogue, Dubois, and Fox-Cardamone 215). Women, influenced by their gender roles and the concept of femininity, experience inequality in their work choices and pay expectations. Women face difficulties during their careers because of their traditional gender roles as main family caretakers. Wives, not husbands, are genera lly the ones who have primary responsibilities in domestic work, either household chores or child care. In dual-earner families, men usually share housework with their partners, yet women still have the main responsibility in organizing family life (Rubin 247). Most people used to consider women entering the work force as expanding their traditional role without men changing theirs (Gilbert and Rader 164). Women were seen as being in conflict between outside work and family; the more time they spent on working outside, the more they would neglect their supposedly main role. Questions were then raised about whether working mothers had negative effects on their children as well as the family as a whole. Although research showed that having dual-earner families had no effect on preschool-age children, especially if additional income was used in daily childcare, this whole viewpoint discouraged women from working outside for a long time (Gilbert and Rader 164). Even though our society is now more accepting toward working mothers, women still cannot have the same opportunities as men when it comes to careers, which involve more commitment than jobs. ( Jobs vs careers ) Women are encouraged to have paid jobs to balance their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ finance, to better their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. In other words, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s working outside is seen as part of their traditional role, or part of their femininity: supporting men. Women who want to pursue their professional careers especially those in high levels, have to spend a lot of time working just like their male colleagues. However, unlike men, they are usually criticized as not fulfilling their traditional role. Women who challenge the idea of gender roles are facing a lot of pressure, both from the work place and from their families. As womenÃ¢â¬â¢s major career is family work, they will not be considered successful if they fail as wives and mothers. Their occupational success will not be viewed seriously as it is still their secondary role. These negative effects of gender cause a lot of difficulties for women who want to seriously pursue their careers, and create a deep inequality between women and men in the labor force. Although there are more and more women working in male-dominated jobs, it is not the case for the most male-dominated field: leadership. Only 21% of women hold middle management positions, and just 15% can be senior level managers (Sipe, Johnson, and Fisher 340). Only 1. 2% of Fortune 500 CEOs are women, according to a Catalyst study (Gorski). Leadership positions have much better monetary awards than other positions; they can be indications of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise and success in his or her job and can promote self-esteem as well as confidence. Even though women now have chances to work in diverse fields, they are not given equal opportunities to take leadership roles, which perpetuates the inequality in the workplace. This can be explained, again, by the idea of femininity and masculinity. Masculinity usually includes those traits such as ambitious, analytical, assertive, decisive, independent, etc. , while femininity denotes characteristics such as affectionate, gentle, caring, warm, soft-spoken, etc. Ã¢â¬Å"The first [masculinity] expresses the intellect, the second [femininity] Ã¢â¬Å"the heartÃ¢â¬ ; the first the Ã¢â¬Å"rationalÃ¢â¬ faculties, the second the Ã¢â¬Å"intuitiveÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"emotionalÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ( Jamieson 124). Those feminine traits are not considered suitable for a leader or for a management position, which traditionally requires those masculine traits such as decisiveness and independence. Because of the effect of gender stereotypes, people view women as possessing the Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ femininity, and women are often raised in a way which encourages them to develop such traits to live up to their social expectations. Not all men possess these appreciated characteristics, and not all women are feminine in the way our society thinks. However, women as a group have suffered from this idea of femininity as people refuse to acknowledge their strength but focus on their gender- based inability to perform leadership. As a result, in a society that considers men as natural leaders, women find it difficult to break those gender stereotypes in order to prove themselves as effective leaders. According to Noble and Moore (2006), many women who are able to achieve leadership eventually give up their positions (qtd. in Sipe, Johnson, and Fisher 340). In her book Beyond the Double Bind, Kathleen H. Jamieson analyzed the gender-caused prejudice against women who were already leaders. As femininity is opposed to the traditional leadership style, women in those positions must be able to show some certain masculine characteristics. They are then perceived as not acting feminine, which is inappropriate in our gender-based society, or as not being masculine enough for effective leadership (Jamieson 121). For example, if a female leader talked assertively, she would be considered unfeminine or even rude for a woman, yet if she did not, she would be criticized as having poor leadership skills. Women with their traditional gender role and their assigned femininity have always confronted difficulties in the workplace. The unequal process starts as soon as they begin to form their ideas about what career they want to pursue, to their lives with a double role as family caretakers and normal employees. It also affects their effort to get promoted to management level; even if they already achieve something, the process works to diminish it. Women have always had to work much harder than men in order to achieve equal statuses. They have to overcome many disadvantages, as well as work against menÃ¢â¬â¢s privilege. Men are viewed as natural leaders; women are not. In order to be equal, they have to prove themselves as effective leaders as well as better leaders than those supposedly natural leaders. Women were raised in a society which views them as inferior, and to achieve equality means to work hard to change their own minds, as well as othersÃ¢â¬â¢. Women have never enjoyed the real equality which many politicians mentioned in their articulate speeches. They have never had the right to dream the American Dream, which promises that everyone will have equal chances to work themselves out of poverty and live their dream lives. Works Cited Gilbert, Lucia A. , and Rader, Jill. Ã¢â¬Å"Current Perspectives on WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Adult Roles: Work, Family, and Life. Ã¢â¬ Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. Ed. Rhoda K. Unger. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2001. 156-169. Print. Gorski, Paul C.. Ã¢â¬Å"Class and Poverty Awareness QuizÃ¢â¬ . Edchange. 2011. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. Houge, Mary, DuBois, Cathy L. Z. , and Fox-Cardamone, Lee. Ã¢â¬Å"Gender Differences in Pay Expectations: the Roles of Job Intention and Self-View. Ã¢â¬ Psychology of Women Quarterly. 34. 2. (2010): 215-227. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. Jamieson, Kathleen H.. Beyond the Double Bind. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print. Rubin, Lillian. Ã¢â¬Å"Families on the Fault LineÃ¢â¬ . The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality. Ed. Tracy E. Ore. New York: McGraw Hill, 2006. 245-254. Print. Sipe, Stephanie, Johnson, C. Douglas, and Fisher, Donna K.. Ã¢â¬Å"University StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Perceptions of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace Reality Versus Fiction. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Education for Business. 84. 6 (2009):339-349. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. Weisgram, Erica, Dinella, Lisa, and Fulcher, Megan. Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Masculinity/ Femininity, Values, and Occupational Value Affordances in Shaping Young MenÃ¢â¬â¢s and WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Occupational Choices. Ã¢â¬ Sex Roles. 65. 3/4. (2011): 243-258. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. How to cite American Dream for Women- Yes or No, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
The cult of Stalin and the purges Paper How far do you agree with this opinion? There is little doubt that Joseph Stalin made drastic and continual efforts to retain his supreme power during the 1930s. The two main methods and perhaps the most memorable are the great purges (otherwise known as the great terror) and the cult of Stalin. Although Stalin had been triumphant in the power struggle against Leon Trotsky in 1929, rather than alleviating his insecurities, Stalin became increasingly paranoid. It seems that the more power and control he gained over Russia and its people, the more irrational and mistrustful he became. This was more than likely because he had more to lose and this encouraged him to instigate a more brutal and controlling regime. Other examples of his vindictive rule were the purging of kulaks during collectivisation and the excessive demands he made during industrialisation and the five-year plans. He also conducted purges targeted at Bolshevik opposition. He insisted on members reapplying for their membership to the party using excuses like corruption, drunkenness and being politically inactive to dismiss them, thus frightening members into submission. This was because if they lost their party cards they could lose their jobs, which ultimately meant they lost their homes, their privileged rations and public status. At the time, Stalin was the General Secretary and consequently controlled whose memberships were renewed and as a result any member suspected of betrayal or opposing his policies had their membership revoked. We will write a custom essay sample on The cult of Stalin and the purges specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The cult of Stalin and the purges specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The cult of Stalin and the purges specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Although Stalin gained a great deal of success via industrialisation, collectivisation and the five-year plans, he ultimately acquired many enemies due to the suffering and numerous deaths caused during these policies. Owing to Stalins extreme tactics, party members began to oppose his policies and ultimately repudiated him, this included Sergei Kirov who until now had been devoted to Stalin. Stalin was all too aware of this mounting threat! Stalin viewed Kirov as his proti gi and in 1926 he rewarded Kirovs loyalty by appointing him as Head of the Leningrad Party. In 1930, Kirov was elected to join the Politburo and eventually he became one of the leading figures of the party.  During the Seventeenth Party Congress, held in February 1934, Kirov gained the fewest negative votes, giving him an advantage over Stalin in the contest for the party leadership and for this reason Stalins aides fixed the vote to ensure a draw between the two candidates. Due to this result, the position of General Secretary was abolished and Kirov and Stalin shared the position of Secretary of Equal Rank. Knowing that his proti. was favoured above him caused an increase in Stalins mistrust of his clique because even those he trusted and depended on were beginning to show signs of desertion. Over the next five years 1,108 of the 1,966 delegates who had attended the Seventeenth Party Congress were arrested, seventy of whom were tried in public while the rest were tried in secret before being executed or sent to the Gulags (labour camps).  On 1st December 1934, a young party member named Leonid Nikolayev murdered Kirov, in the Smolny Institute, in Leningrad and was consequently arrested and executed. To this day there is still a mystery surrounding Kirovs assassination as there were few actual witnesses to the event. This means that historians can only speculate with regard to what actually took place during this significant event. Although Nikolayev was arrested, there are varied theories about who led the conspiracy behind the assassination, one conjecture being Stalin himself was involved, although no solid evidence has ever been found to prove this. To destabilize this belief Stalin portrayed Trotsky as the culprit, giving him the pretext to introduce a series of anti-terrorist measures and to purge the party of so-called Trotskyites and Zinovievites, including Gregory Zinoviev himself, Lev Kamenev and 14 other party members, who were arrested by Genrikh Yagoda the Head of the NKVD (secret police), tried and executed.  As a result of Kirovs death and the betrayal Stalin had encountered during the period surrounding the assassination, Stalin began enforcing the great purges. The first phase began in 1935 and was devised to rid the Party of any political opponents or threats. The first show trial was held in August 1936 and heralded the beginning of the great purges. The show trials were held in public to generate public humiliation for the defendants, to illustrate consequences to other potential rivals and to convey the threat of conspiracies against the government, thus resulting in fear amongst the nation. They were also open to western journalists and were intended to show the world communist justice. The great purges gave Stalin tremendous control over people, mostly through fear alone. There was a constant threat of being purged from the party, show tried and executed or sent to the Gulags. Gulags were labour camps, placed in remote areas of Russia (e. g. Siberia), where conditions were so horrific nobody would ever choose to work there of their own freewill. The prisoners were subjected to severe weather conditions, abuse by guards, long working hours and insufficient food and clothing. Prisoners were exploited as lumber jacks, for construction and mining to achieve targets set for industrialisation and the five-year-plans. Most of the prisoners sent there eventually died from hunger, exhaustion, ill health or maltreatment before the end of their usually long sentences.  Stalins second phase of the great purges was aimed at the Russian people, rather than party members alone and was identified as Yezhovshchina, named after Nikolai Yezhov (Head of the NKVD). Yezhov was appointed in September 1936 in place of Yagoda who had failed to obtain enough evidence to convict Bukharin and was consequently discharged. Yezhov quickly arranged the arrest of all the leading political figures in the Soviet Union who were critical of Stalin.  During this purge, a tell tale society was formed, encouraging people to denounce fellow citizens, creating mistrust among the nation. Informants mostly denounced citizens such as the intellectuals, for instance artists, writers, and journalists, who were more likely to pose as a threat to Stalin. A quota system was enforced commanding the NKVD to make a designated number of arrests and the full quota had to be achieved. As a result it is likely that a large number of accusations had been invented by the NKVD to fulfil the quota and that many of those arrested had not actually committed any crimes against the State. Among those arrested, 28% were to be shot and the remainder would be forced into Gulags. Official figures suggest that between January 1935 and June 1941, 19. 8 million people were arrested by the NKVD. An estimated seven million of these prisoners were executed.  Although Stalin instigated the great purges there are indications that suggest the NKVD intensified the demands and infiltrated their own desires into the modus operandi. Everyone was a potential victim during this phase of the purges. The NKVD massacred kulaks, priests, former members of anti-Bolshevik armies, those who had been abroad or had relatives abroad, immigrants and even citizens.  The second show trial was held in January 1937, in which seventeen people stood accused, among them were Karl Radek, Yuri Piatakov and Grigory Sokolnikov. Thirteen of the defendants were executed, while the remainder were sent to the Gulags. The third show trial, held in March 1938, involved 21 defendants allegedly belonging to the Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites, whose leaders consisted of Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, Genrikh Yagoda (former Head of the NKVD), Christian Rakovsky and Nikolai Krestinsky, all of whom were executed. The third phase of the great purges began in the spring of 1937 and was led by the NKVD which targeted the armed forces. Previously, many of the Red Army officers had been officers under the Tsarist regime and during Lenins rule had been forged into the Red Army by Trotsky, causing Stalin to fear that they would turn against him and form a military dictatorship as an alternative government to his style of communism. Officers were by now living in fear of World War II breaking out and because they had earned their ranks on merit and had not bought them, they did not feel they owed Stalin any loyalty, increasing his fear of a military coup. Fearing a rebellion, Stalin began purging officers (1937-1938) and in particular he targeted Marshall Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who was Chief of The General Staff. Tukhachevsky was potentially a major rival as he had previously worked under Lenin and was now in control of all the armed forces (i. e. army, navy and air force) and was very popular with the troops. In all, the NKVD purged the armed forces of eighteen Army War Commissars who were all shot, five Marshals of the Soviet Union, three of whom were shot (including Tukhachevsky), 80 Officers of the Supreme Military Council, 75 of whom were executed, sixteen army commanders, fourteen of whom were shot, 280 divisional colonels, of whom two thirds were killed, 70,000 commissioned officers, half of whom were killed or imprisoned, all the Navy Admirals were executed and only one air force officer survived. Altogether thousands of other officers were executed or imprisoned, spying for Germany or Japan was amongst the most common of accusations against officers and because of the amount of executions in all three forces they were left severely undermanned. The few newly appointed officers left were inexperienced and incompetent as leaders, causing major disarray in the Soviet Unions armed forces. It has been claimed that Tukhachevsky (Marshal of the Soviet Union) was executed as part of a secret fourth trial, held in June 1937, in which he stood accused before a military tribunal of a group of Red Army generals. However, the evidence presented against the accused was almost nonexistent and convictions relied on confessions extracted through torture and threats against family members.  One of Stalins cunning tactics to achieve this purge without mutiny was to switch officers among regiments. This might have appeared impractical but he knew the troops trusted their officers and when confronted with a new officer, who they did not know or trust, the troops didnt dispute any accusations made against them or their colleagues because they feared condemnation. By late 1938, the great purges had achieved its purpose and the mass arrests were stopped. Stalin had carried out a complete renovation of the Communist Party and had brought in people owing their loyalty to him. His rule was now unchallenged, but in liquidating key elements of the society he had devastated the country and left it badly prepared for the apparent onset of World War II.  As a result of the previous purges there was insufficient demand for the NKVD, as most threats to Stalin had already been eradicated. This alarmed Yezhov, who feared he and his squadron would lose their jobs and as a consequence he began inciting Stalins paranoia. Nevertheless, he became a target of his own doing when an informant accused him of being a British agent and of killing innocent people resulting in his arrest, a trial (held in 1939) and ultimately execution. Whilst the purges were about ridding the party of opposition, the Cult of Stalin was more about brainwashing the nation into worshipping Stalin as an Idol. His campaign included ordering all propaganda (e. g.photos, leaflets) to be altered, to enhance Stalin so that he would stand out as a hero and to make him appear to be a significant role in the Revolution. Towns, streets and prizes were renamed in his honour, statues of him were erected and pet names such as Brilliant Genius of Humanity were applied to him.  Anyone he suspected as a potential rival was erased from literature, documents and photos. This was especially true of Trotsky. Trotskys role was censored from history books to conceal the fact that he had ever existed or taken part in the Revolution. This provided Stalin with a role to step into and gave credence to his assertion that he had never encountered any major contenders for his supremacy. These tactics gave the appearance that Stalin was in complete control and that nobody disagreed with him, only worshipped him. Stalin achieved celebrity status among the nation and to an extent around the world. There is no question that Stalin used the Great Purges and the Cult of Stalin to retain his supreme power. However, the reasons for Stalin becoming more controlling are debatable. Some historians claim he was seeking notoriety (the great man theory), some believe he suffered from mental illness and others regard him as a dictator. The fact that he used such brutal, calculating and extreme tactics suggests to me that he would go to any lengths to meet his aspirations and would on no account allow anyone, regardless of the cost to the nation, to compromise his aim for control of the State. With each purge he exceeded the limits of the previous purge, becoming even more powerful, yet more and more paranoid. Whether Stalin needed to go to such extreme lengths to conceal his enemies and cultivate such an iconic persona of himself, is still questionable. In order to have been able to accomplish such campaigns, Stalin must have already possessed a great deal of control and support. To this day some people regard him as an icon and believe his brutality was justified to turn the Soviet Union into a modern and industrialised State. In 1953 indication of a Doctors plot emerged alleging that nine Kremlin doctors were engaged in a plot to assassinate Stalin and other political leaders. As a result Stalin commanded Lavrenti Beria, the new Head of the NKVD, to purge the Communist Party of candidates for his leadership. However, on 2nd March Stalin suffered a brain haemorrhage resulting in the plan being terminated.  To this day, events surrounding his death have been shrouded with enigma as it has been claimed that the night before the haemorrhage, his guards were given orders, from Stalin himself, to retire for the night and not to disturb him. When he did not rise the next day at his usual time, the guards became concerned but did not interrupt him as they feared the repercussions of disobeying the dictator. That evening one of the guards was ordered to enter Stalins room to investigate and on entry he found Stalin lying on the floor, paralysed, soon after he slipped into a coma. The guard summoned the senior party men of the Politburo and family members to the Dacha, Stalins favourite holiday home. His daughter, Svetlana Alliluyevas testimony claims that after 3 days (5th March 1953) Stalin briefly regained consciousness, looked around the room, raised his hand and pointed upwards as if bringing down a curse upon us all and then he died.  Conversely, due to the tardiness of the Politburo in calling for medical assistance, the Russian historian Edvard Radzinski asserts that Stalin was injected with poison by the guard Khrustalev, under the orders of his master (KGB chief, Lavrenty Beria to prevent Russia participating in the initiation of World War III.  In the end it was Stalins own paranoia and tyranny that led to his demise. Bibliography Clare, John D. , Russia 1971-1941: Stalins Terror (Greenfield History Site, 2002/2008) http://www. johndclare. net/Russ12. htm [accessed on 11 May 2008]Grant, Jim, Stalin and the Soviet Union (1998; repr. London: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 2003) Internal Workings of the Soviet System: The Gulag (Library of Congress) http://www. loc. gov/exhibits/archives/gula. html [accessed on 2 June 2008] Knight, Amy, Great Purge (Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 1997-2008) http://encarta. msn. com/encyclopedia_761588286/great_purge. html [accessed on 11 May 2008] Krushelnycky, Leonida, The Last Mystery of Stalin (BBC: Radio 4, 2000) Online http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/world/europe/2793501. stm [accessed on 20 May 2008]. Lee, Stephen J. , Questions and analysis in history: Stalin and the Soviet Union (London: Routledge, 1999) Mawdsley, Evan, The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union 1929-1953, 2nd edn (1998; repr. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001) Oxley, Peter, Oxford advanced history: Russia 1855-1991: From Tsars to Commissars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) Service, Robert, A history of twentieth century Russia (London: Penguin Group, 1997) Siegel, Paul, The Last Years of Stalin and Trotsky (Socialist Action, 2001) Sources: 62: Khrushchev, 631, 63: Alliluyeva, 10. Online http://www. socialistaction. org/news/200103/last. html [accessed on 16 May 2008] Simkin, John, The Soviet Union: 1920-45 (Spartacus Educational, 1997) www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk [accessed on 10 May 2008] , Russian Revolution: 1917-20 (Spartacus Educational, 1997) www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk [accessed on 10 May 2008] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: vol. 1, (Colorado: West.View Press, 1998) p. 408. Online http://www. gendercide. org/case_stalin. html [accessed on 19 May 2008]. Subtelny, Orest, Ukraine A History, 2nd edn (University of Toronto Press, 1993), pp. 420-421. Online http://www. brama. com/ukraine/history/greatpurge/index. html [accessed on 22 May 2008] Westwood, J. N. , The short Oxford history of the modern world: Endurance and endeavour: Russian history 1812-1986, 3rd edn (1973; repr. New York: Oxford university Press, 1987) Whitlock, Martin, Questions in history: Stalins Russia (London: Collins Educational, 1997) Wood, Alan, Stalin and Stalinism (1990; repr. London: Routledge, 2002). 1 Simkin, John, Sergei Kirov, Online http://www.spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/RUSkirov. htm 2 Simkin, Communist Secret Police: NKVD, Online /RUSnkvd. htm 3 Mawdsley, Evan, The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union 1929-1953, 2nd edn (1998; repr. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001) pp. 98-99 4 Wood, Alan, Stalin and Stalinism (1990; repr. London: Routledge, 2002)pp. 36-37 5 Internal Workings of the Soviet System: The Gulag (Library of Congress) http://www. loc. gov/exhibits/archives/gula. html [accessed on 2 June 2008] 6 Simkin, Communist Secret Police: NKVD, Online /RUSnkvd. htm 7. IBID 8 Subtelny, Orest, Ukraine A History, 2nd edn (University of Toronto Press, 1993), pp. 420-421. Online http://www. brama. com/ukraine/history/greatpurge/index. html [accessed on 22 May 2008] 9 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: vol. 1, (Colorado: West View Press, 1998) p. 408. Online http://www. gendercide. org/case_stalin. html [accessed on 19 May 2008] 10 Knight, Amy, Great Purge (Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 1997-2008) http://encarta. msn. com/encyclopedia_761588286/great_purge.html [accessed on 11 May 2008] 11 Simkin, Russian Revolutionaries 1914-20: Joseph Stalin, Online /RUSstalin. htm 12 Wood, Alan, Stalin and Stalinism, p. 58 13 Siegel, Paul, The Last Years of Stalin and Trotsky (Socialist Action, 2001) Sources: 62: Khrushchev, 631, 63: Alliluyeva, 10. Online http://www. socialistaction. org/news/200103/last. html [accessed on 16 May 2008] 14 Krushelnycky, Leonida, The Last Mystery of Stalin (BBC: Radio 4, 2000) Online http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/world/europe/2793501. stm [accessed on 20 May 2008].